The kidneys are a pair of organs removing “waste” products, e.g. products of human metabolism which are not needed anymore and are naturally cleared from the body via urine. It’s possible to lose as much as 90% of kidney function without experiencing any symptoms or problems. A kidney damage can have numerous causes, e.g. disease or exposure to harmful substances, which may lead to a number of complications. Dietary minerals in the urine can aggregate in the kidney and may form solid crystals, also known as “kidney stones”. They can typically leave the body by passage in the urine without causing symptoms, whereas large kidney stones can block urine flow which leads to painful conditions.

Energy drinks are classified as normal foodstuff and contain ingredients that are safe to consume and also occur naturally. The safe consumption of these ingredients has been confirmed by health authorities across the world. All ingredients added to energy drinks are labelled on the product.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) being the risk assessment body for food and feed safety in the European Union, concluded in its 2009 opinion that additive interactions between taurine and caffeine on diuretic effects are unlikely. In May 2015, this was confirmed by the EFSA in its scientific opinion on the safety of caffeine.